[16] The 12 April 1931 municipal elections led to a landslide victory for republicans. Calleja, Eduardo González, and Francisco Sánchez Pérez. Legislation prior to February 1936 would be respected. The revolutionary left wing masses took to the streets, and released prisoners. [13], On 28 January 1930, the military dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera (who had been in power since September 1923) was overthrown. Despite an attempt at a general stoppage in Madrid, other strikes did not endure. [21] Scholars have described the constitution as hostile to religion, with one scholar characterising it as one of the most hostile of the 20th century. After the restoration of democracy in Spain, the government formally dissolved the following year. The Socialists triggered an insurrection that they had been preparing for nine months. [26], With the new constitution approved in December 1931, once the constituent assembly had fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion. [52] However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war. The 1931 Constitution would be suspended, replaced by a new "constituent parliament" which would be chosen by a new politically purged electorate, who would vote on the issue of republic versus monarchy. [47], Prominent rightists blamed the government for Calvo Sotelo's assassination. ", This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 18:02. Barricades were raised after the shooting of protestors outside the Guizot manor by soldiers. It lasted from the 1848 Revolution to the 1851 coup by which the president made himself Emperor Napoleon III and initiated the Second Empire. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. Potomac Books, Inc., 2005, p.66, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPreston1983 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBeevor2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas2001 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFPreston2006 (. Lamartine, thinking that he was sure to be the choice of the electors under universal suffrage, won over the support of the Chamber, which did not even take the precaution of rendering ineligible the members of families which had reigned over France. [4], This looked like a declaration of war against the Catholic and monarchist majority in the Legislative Assembly, which had been elected on 28 May in a moment of panic. [65], On 17 July 1936, General Franco led the Spanish Army of Africa from Morocco to attack the mainland, while another force from the north under General Emilio Mola moved south from Navarre. This provisional government with Dupont de l'Eure as its president, consisted of Lamartine for foreign affairs, Crémieux for justice, Ledru-Rollin for the interior, Carnot for public instruction, Goudchaux for finance, Arago for the navy, and Burdeau for war. The Battle of the Ebro in July–November 1938 was the final desperate attempt by the Republicans to turn the tide. Although both sides received foreign military aid, the help that Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany (as part of German involvement in the Spanish Civil War), and neighbouring Portugal gave the rebels was much greater and more effective than the assistance that the Republicans received from the USSR, Mexico, and volunteers of the International Brigades. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, President Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government, fearing CEDA's monarchist sympathies. En présence de Dieu et au nom du Peuple français, l'Assemblée nationale proclame : I. When the antifascist Castillo and the anti-socialist Calvo Sotelo were buried on the same day in the same Madrid cemetery, fighting between the Police Assault Guard and fascist militias broke out in the surrounding streets, resulting in four more deaths. Finally, a skillful interpretation of the law on clubs and political societies suppressed about this time all the republican societies. Three days later (17 July), the coup d'état began more or less as it had been planned, with an army uprising in Spanish Morocco, which then spread to several regions of the country. Le chef de l'État est élu pour cinq ans au suffrage universel direct (instauration du quinquennat à la suite du référendum du 24 septembre 2000). The argument that Mr Gil Robles tried to destroy the Constitution to establish fascism was, at once, hypocritical and false. - La France s'est constituée en République. This provoked a foolish insurrection in Paris in favor of the Roman Republic, that of the Château d'Eau, which was crushed on 13 June 1849. He was Jupiter Elicius - one who brings forth. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA finally forced the appointment of three of its three ministries. Le départ de l’Amiral Didier Ratsiraka a été suivi d’une nouvelle période transitoire marquée au début par la révision constitutionnelle rétablissant le pluralisme politique à Madagascar. But now we have something worse: a police force which is grounded only on a general sense of panic and on the invention of non-existent dangers to cover up this over-stepping of the law. In 1932 the Jesuits who were in charge of the best schools throughout the country were banned and had all their property confiscated. [42], The right reacted as if radical communists had taken control, despite the new cabinet's moderate composition; they were shocked by the revolutionary masses taking to the streets and the release of prisoners. The Himno de Riego was established as the national anthem, and the Tricolor, with three horizontal red-yellow-purple fields, became the new flag of Spain. When the questors called upon the Chamber to have posted up in all barracks the decree of 6 May 1848 concerning the right of the Assembly to demand the support of the troops if attacked, the Mountain, dreading a restoration of the monarchy, voted with the Bonapartists against the measure, thus disarming the legislative power. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and was dissolved on 1 April 1939 after surrendering in the Spanish Civil War to the rebel faction that fought to establish a military dictatorship under General Francisco Franco. The Bodleian Libraries at the University of Oxford is the largest university library system in the United Kingdom. The industrial population of the faubourgs was welcomed by the National Guard on their way towards the centre of Paris. His concessions only increased the boldness of the monarchists, while they had only accepted Louis-Napoléon as president in opposition to the Republic and as a step in the direction of the monarchy. On 12 July 1936, Lieutenant José Castillo, an important member of the anti-fascist military organisation Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA), was shot by Falangist gunmen. Il peut dissoudre l'Assemblée nationale et, en cas de cris… Le terme "reconnues", utilisé dans la version française de l' article 228 du traité, … (Garibaldi and Mazzini had been elected to a Constitutional Assembly.) With this rebellion against an established political legitimate authority, the Socialists showed identical repudiation of representative institutional system that anarchists had practiced. [7] The rebellion was crushed by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish colonial troops from Spanish Morocco. [17] Two days later, the Second Republic was proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII went into exile. All hope of a peaceful issue was at an end. Transatlantic Antifascisms: From the Spanish Civil War to the End of World War II. Hachette UK, 2012. harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCasanova2010 (, Mariano Ospina Peña, La II República Española, caballerosandantes.net/videoteca.php?action=verdet&vid=89, Dilectissima Nobis, 2 (On Oppression Of The Church Of Spain), Spain 1833–2002, p.133, Mary Vincent, Oxford, 2007, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCasanova2010 (, Madariaga - Spain (1964) p.416 as cited in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFVilla_GarcíaÁlvarez_Tardío2017 (. But the President again pretended to be playing the game of the Orléanists, as he had done in the case of the Constituent Assembly. The inclusion of three CEDA ministers in the government that took office on 1 October 1934 led to a country wide revolt. The Second Spanish Republic's economy was mostly agrarian, and many historians call Spain during this time a "backward nation". On 15 May, an armed mob, headed by Raspail, Blanqui and Barbès, and assisted by the proletariat-aligned Guard, attempted to overwhelm the Assembly, but were defeated by the bourgeois-aligned battalions of the National Guard. Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic. The Spanish Republic (Spanish: República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Spanish: Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republican government survived in exile, and retained an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. The plebiscite of 20 December, ratified by a huge majority the coup d'état in favour of the prince-president, who alone reaped the benefit of the excesses of the Republicans and the reactionary passions of the monarchists. This ban was forced with strict police severity and widespread mob violence. The disenchantment with Azaña's ruling was voiced by Miguel de Unamuno, a republican and one of Spain's most respected intellectuals, who in June 1936 told a reporter who published his statement in El Adelanto that President Manuel Azaña should commit suicide as a patriotic act". I cannot yet see him..." The granting of universal suffrage to a society with Imperialist sympathies would benefit reactionaries, which culminated in the election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte as president of the republic. [2], Soon Azaña came into conflict with both the right and far left. By the rise of the Republi… L'agence a reçu son approbation des autorités le 4 mai 2012 et nous avons réactivé notre dossier auprès du SAI. American historian Stanley G. Payne thinks that the process was a major electoral fraud, with widespread violation of the laws and the constitution. These differences became evident in the 1936 elections. [6], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}48°49′N 2°29′E / 48.817°N 2.483°E / 48.817; 2.483, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.persee.fr/doc/r1848_1155-8806_1931_num_28_139_1209_t1_0237_0000_2, Provisional Government of the French Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_Second_Republic&oldid=983692408, States and territories established in 1848, States and territories disestablished in 1852, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles lacking in-text citations from July 2018, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Amann, Peter H. "Writings on the Second French Republic. "[23] Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish government's deprivation of the civil liberties of Catholics in the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis. In the summer of 1936, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, it became largely irrelevant after the authority of the Republic was superseded in many places by revolutionary socialists and anarchists on one side, and fascists on the other. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. [5] The rebellion developed into a bloody revolutionary uprising, trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime. For Spain from 1873 to 1874, see. However, fearing the increasingly popular opposition, the Radical and Socialist majority postponed the regular elections, prolonging their power for two more years. Together, the Libraries hold more than 12 million printed items, over 80,000 e-journals and outstanding special collections including rare books and manuscripts, classi… By the "massacres" of the June Days, the working classes were also alienated from it. Catholic churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11 May. [9] The right had firmly believed, at all levels, that they would win. In spite of the preponderance of the "tri-colour" party in the provisional government, so long as the voice of France had not spoken, the socialists, supported by the Parisian proletariat, had exercised an influence on policy disproportionate to their relative numbers. Cambridge University Press, 2017, p-17, Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Background of the Spanish Civil War § Second Republic, Background of the Spanish Civil War § The "black biennium", German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Coat of Arms of the Second Spanish Republic, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, "abc.es: "La quema de iglesias durante la Segunda República" 10 May 2012", Perspectives on religious freedom in Spain, "A History of Spain and Portugal (Print Edition)", "24 horas - Stanley G. Payne: "Las elecciones del 36, durante la Republica, fueron un fraude, "The Spanish Civil War exhibition: Mainline text", "La Pasionaria's Farewell Message to the International Brigade fighters", https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/29428326.pdf, Constitución de la República Española (1931), English Translation of the Constitution of the Spanish Republic (1931), Pro-Republic, 75th Anniversary Manifiesto, Original article from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, History of the republic and the victory of the Popular Front in elections, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Spanish_Republic&oldid=994540398, States and territories established in 1931, States and territories disestablished in 1939, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Spain articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 06:42. [28], The majority vote in the 1933 elections was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). Issue d'une révolution qui a introduit le suffrage universel et l'a utilisé de la façon la plus large, la deuxième République a substitué sans transition et sans préparation les passions et les sentiments populaires aux intérêts des catégories dirigeantes qui dominaient la vie politique avant 1848. Notes His reply to the votes of censure passed by the Assembly, and their refusal to increase his civil list was to hint at a vast communistic plot in order to scare the bourgeoisie, and to denounce the electoral law of 31 May 1850, in order to gain the support of the mass of the people. Schéma constitutionnel de la Seconde République française, les institutions de la deuxième République, Constitution et Histoire de la République en France fonds de promotion de l'habitat urbain. This greatly contributed to their "backwardness", as their industry was located away from their coal reserves which caused immense transportation costs due to the mountainous Spanish terrain. Under the new Constitution, all of Spain's regions had the right to autonomy. The President and the Assembly co-operated in the passage of the Loi Falloux of 15 March 1850, which again placed university instruction under the direction of the Church.[5]. Welcome to this window on GRECO’s world! On 10 December the peasants gave over 5,000,000 votes to a name: Napoléon, which stood for order at all costs, against 1,400,000 for Cavaignac. It made the presidency an office dependent upon popular acclamation. [29] Miners in Asturias occupied the capital, Oviedo, killing officials and clergymen. [50] Although the nationalist generals were already planning an uprising, the event was a catalyst and a public justification for a coup. [24], The legislative branch was changed to a single chamber called the Congress of Deputies. Beevor, Antony. Yale University Press, 2008, pp.84–85. This was only made worse due to Spanish exports being extremely low and Spain having a heavily domestic manufacturing industry. Landowners were expropriated. The events swept away the Orleans Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the nation's second republic. Landowners were expropriated. [8], The government led by the Radical Republican Party went through a series of crises in 1935. The third government was led by socialist Juan Negrín, who led the Republic until the military coup of Segismundo Casado, which ended republican resistance and ultimately led to the victory of the nationalists, who established a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco, known as Francoist Spain. [37][38] This view has been criticised by Eduardo Calleja and Francisco Pérez, who question the charges of electoral irregularity and argue that the Popular Front would still have won a slight electoral majority even if all of the charges were true. According to all later investigations, the perpetrator of the murder was a socialist gunman, Luis Cuenca, who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto. Le peuple français proclame solennellement son attachement aux Droits de l'homme et aux principes de la souveraineté nationale tels qu'ils ont été définis par la Déclaration de 1789, confirmée et complétée par le préambule de la Constitution de 1946, ainsi qu'aux droits et devoirs définis dans la Charte de l'environnement de 2004. Unknown in 1835, and forgotten or despised since 1840, Louis Napoleon had in the last eight years advanced sufficiently in the public estimation to be elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848 by five departments. Almost immediately after the results were known, a group of monarchists asked Robles to lead a coup but he refused. [32] Thirty thousand workers were mobilized for battle within ten days. The remaining Republican fronts collapsed, and Madrid fell in March 1939. The subsequent 1933 election was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). Lamartine wished for them to maintain their original principles, with the whole country as supreme, whereas the revolutionaries under Ledru-Rollin wished for the republic of Paris to hold a monopoly on political power. date de création: 11/12/1989. [51] Stanley Payne claims that before these events, the idea of rebellion by army officers against the government had weakened; Mola had estimated that only 12% of officers reliably supported the coup and at one point considered fleeing the country for fear he was already compromised, and had to be convinced to remain by his co-conspirators. The Revolution of 1830, part of a wave of similar regime changes across Europe, had put an end to the absolute monarchy of the Bourbon Restoration and installed a more liberal constitutional monarchy under the Orleans dynasty and governed predominantly by Guizot's conservative-liberal centre-right and Thiers's progressive-liberal centre-left. On 23 February 1848 premier François Guizot's cabinet resigned, abandoned by the petite bourgeoisie, on whose support they thought they could depend. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. [39], In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured, while fifty churches and seventy conservative political centres were attacked or set ablaze. Fifty eight religious buildings including churches, convents and part of the university at Oviedo were burned and destroyed. This added the uneducated masses to the electorate and led to the election of the Constituent Assembly of 4 May 1848. Calvo Sotelo was one of the most prominent Spanish monarchists who, describing the government's actions as Bolshevist and anarchist, had been exhorting the army to intervene, declaring that Spanish soldiers would save the country from communism if "there are no politicians capable of doing so". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe . On the other hand, when the Pope, though only just restored, began to yield to the general movement of reaction, the President demanded that he should set up a Liberal government. Elle ne parvient pas non plus à se doter d'institutions claires. But, as in 1830, the republican-socialist party had set up a rival government at the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), including Louis Blanc, Armand Marrast, Ferdinand Flocon, and Alexandre Martin, known as Albert L'Ouvrier ("Albert the Worker"), which bid fair to involve discord and civil war. President Alcalá-Zamora , who had always been hostile to the government, decided to call for new elections, refusing once again to invite CEDA, the party with most seats in the parliament, to form a government. But to the left of the dynastic parties, the monarchy was criticised by Republicans (a mixture of Radicals and socialists) for being insufficiently democratic: its electoral system was based on a narrow, privileged electorate of property-owners and therefore excluded workers. Odilon Barrot accepted, and Thomas Robert Bugeaud, commander-in-chief of the first military division, who had begun to attack the barricades, was recalled. A conflict was now inevitable between his personal policy and the majority of the Chamber, who were moreover divided into legitimists and Orléanists, in spite of the death of Louis-Philippe in August 1850. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the largest party in the congress, was finally successful in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. Although it only received 0.7 percent of the votes in the election, by July 1936 the Falange had 40,000 members. [55] Within hours of learning of the murder and the reaction, Franco, that until then had not been involved in the conspiracies, changed his mind on rebellion and dispatched a message to Mola to display his firm commitment.[56]. Progress on implementing substantive economic reforms remains slow because of political instability, … This left Asturian strikers to fight alone. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. The complementary elections of March and April 1850 resulted in an unexpected victory for the republicans which alarmed the conservative leaders, Thiers, Berryer and Montalembert. Emmanuel MACRON, huitième président de la Ve République, a été élu le 7 mai 2017. The constitution established legal procedures for the nationalisation of public services and land, banks, and railways. Devenu à son tour président de la République en 1995, Jacques Chirac, héritier du gaullisme, en procédant en 1997 à la dissolution de l’Assemblée, a provoqué une nouvelle cohabitation qui a ramené à la dyarchie, c’est-à-dire à un partage du pouvoir exécutif entre le président de la République et le Premier ministre, contraire à la lecture gaullienne des institutions. [32] This rebellion lasted for two weeks until it was crushed by the army, led by General Eduardo López Ochoa. During this time, the government of Manuel Azaña initiated numerous reforms to modernize the country. Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. Ordonnance ministérielle conjointe N°710/540/1575 du 14/08/2019 portant détermination des produits agro-pastoraux dont le financement bénéficie de l’exonération en vertu de l’article 84 de la loi bancaire. Associations, institutions, etc. By the decree of 24 February, the provisional government had solemnly accepted the principle of the "right to work," and decided to establish "National Workshops" for the unemployed; at the same time, a sort of industrial parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc, with the object of preparing a scheme for the organization of labor; and, lastly, by the decree of 8 March, the property qualification for enrollment in the National Guard had been abolished and the workmen were supplied with arms. The initial government would be an all-military "Directory", which would create a "strong and disciplined state." Handout 2. Telefon na spojovatelku: 257 171 111 Informace dle zákona 106/1999 Sb. Abroad Spain is classified as insolvent. Sotelo was arrested and later shot dead in a police truck. A "Catalan State" was proclaimed by Catalan nationalist leader Lluis Companys, but it lasted just ten hours. [30][31] The miners proceeded to occupy several other towns, most notably the large industrial centre of La Felguera, and set up town assemblies, or "revolutionary committees", to govern the towns that they controlled. This was not a coup attempt but more of a "police action" akin to Asturias, as Franco believed the post-election environment could become violent and was trying to quell the perceived leftist threat. The government called a state of emergency, thinking it could rely on the troops of the National Guard, but instead on the morning of 23 February the Guardsmen sided with the revolutionaries, protecting them from the regular soldiers who by now had been called in. The resistance organized by the republicans within Paris under Victor Hugo was soon subdued by the intoxicated soldiers.